Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876

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    • Freedom’s Unfinished Revolution: Teaching a People’s History of Reconstruction (Teaching Activity) | Zinn Education Project: Teaching People's History
    • Freedom's Unfinished Revolution: Teaching a People’s History of Reconstruction

    • Background Reading for Teachers. By Bill Bigelow. 4 pages.
      A review of Freedom’s Unfinished Revolution, a collection of primary documents for high school on the Civil War and Reconstruction.

    • Resource Types: Teaching Activities (Free) | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, 19th Century | Themes: African American, Laws & Citizen Rights, Racism & Racial Identity, Slavery | Reading Levels: High School
    • Reconstructing the South: A Role Play

    • Teaching Activity. By Bill Bigelow. 17 pages.
      This role play engages students in thinking about what freedpeople needed in order to achieve—and sustain—real freedom following the Civil War. It’s followed by a chapter from the book Freedom’s Unfinished Revolution on what would happen to the land in the South after slavery ended.

    • Resource Types: Teaching Activities (Free) | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, 19th Century | Themes: African American, Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights, Racism & Racial Identity, Slavery | Reading Levels: High School
    • The Expansion of Empire

    • Teaching Activity. By Gayle Olson-Raymer. 15 pages.
      Questions and teaching ideas for Chapter 12 of Voices of a People’s History of the United States on internal dissent over American expansionist policies.

    • Resource Types: Teaching Guides | Time Periods: Early 19th Century: 1800 - 1849, Civil War Era: 1850 - 1864, Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, Industrial Revolution: 1877 - 1899, 19th Century | Themes: Imperialism, US Foreign Policy, Wars & Related Anti-War Movements | Reading Levels: High School
    • Freedom’s Unfinished Revolution: An Inquiry Into the Civil War and Reconstruction (Book) | Zinn Education Project: Teaching People's History
    • Freedom's Unfinished Revolution: An Inquiry Into the Civil War and Reconstruction

    • Teaching Guide. By American Social History Project with foreword by Eric Foner. 1996. 302 pages.
      Primary documents, essays, and questions to teach the untold story of Reconstruction.

    • Resource Types: Teaching Guides | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, 19th Century | Themes: African American, Democracy & Citizenship, Racism & Racial Identity, Wars & Related Anti-War Movements | Reading Levels: High School
    • Indian Removal

    • Teaching Activity. By Gayle Olson-Raymer. 18 pages.
      Questions and teaching ideas for Chapter 7 of Voices of a People’s History of the United States on the American policy of “Manifest Destiny” and Native American resistance to their own displacement.

    • Resource Types: Teaching Guides | Time Periods: Early 19th Century: 1800 - 1849, Civil War Era: 1850 - 1864, Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, Industrial Revolution: 1877 - 1899, 19th Century | Themes: Imperialism, Native American, Racism & Racial Identity | Reading Levels: High School
    • The Reconstruction Era and the Fragility of Democracy (Website) | Zinn Education Project: Teaching People's History
    • The Reconstruction Era and the Fragility of Democracy

    • Teaching Guide.
      A collection of lessons, videos, and primary sources to teach about Reconstruction.

    • Resource Types: Teaching Guides | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, 19th Century | Themes: African American, Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights, Racism & Racial Identity | Reading Levels: Grades 6-8, High School
    • Strikers and Populists in the Golden Age

    • Teaching Activity. By Gayle Olson-Raymer. 18 pages.
      Questions and teaching ideas for Chapter 11 of Voices of a People’s History of the United States on the Gilded Age.

    • Resource Types: Teaching Guides | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, Industrial Revolution: 1877 - 1899, 19th Century | Themes: Labor, Social Class | Reading Levels: High School
    • Five Myths About Reconstruction | Zinn Education Project: Teaching People's History
    • Five Myths About Reconstruction

    • Article. By James W. Loewen. 2015.
      Overview of five common fallacies that Americans still tell themselves about the Reconstruction era.

    • Resource Types: Articles | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, 19th Century | Themes: African American, Democracy & Citizenship, Racism & Racial Identity, Slavery |
    • Nov. 23, 1887: Thibodaux Massacre

    • Article. Zinn Education Project.
      Overview of an attack on Black Louisiana sugarcane workers by the Louisiana Militia.

    • Resource Types: Articles | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, 19th Century | Themes: African American, Democracy & Citizenship, Labor, Laws & Citizen Rights, Racism & Racial Identity |
    • When Black Lives Mattered: Why Teach Reconstruction

    • Article. By Adam Sanchez. 2017. If We Knew Our History series.
      Reconstruction, the era immediately following the Civil War and emancipation, is full of stories that help us see the possibility of a future defined by racial equity. Though often overlooked in classrooms across the country, Reconstruction was a period where the impossible suddenly became possible.

    • Resource Types: Articles | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, Industrial Revolution: 1877 - 1899, 19th Century | Themes: African American, Democracy & Citizenship, Racism & Racial Identity, Slavery | Reading Levels: High School
    • Why I'm Rooting for Tommy Lee Jones

    • Article. By William Katz. 2013.
      Why Tommy Lee Jones winning an Oscar for his performance as Congressman Thaddeus Stevens in Lincoln can highlight Stevens’ fight for equality.

    • Resource Types: Articles | Time Periods: Civil War Era: 1850 - 1864, Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, 19th Century | Themes: Slavery | Reading Levels: Adult, High School
    • The Black Americans: A History in Their Own Words, 1619-1983

    • Book – Non-fiction. Edited by Milton Meltzer. 1987. 320 pages.
      Engaging first person stories and primary documents.

    • Resource Types: Books: Non-Fiction | Time Periods: Civil War Era: 1850 - 1864, Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, All US History | Themes: African American, Labor | Reading Levels: Grades 6-8, High School
    • Black Reconstruction in America

    • Book – Non-fiction. By W. E. B. Du Bois. Introduction by David Levering Lewis. 2014. 623 pages.
      Originally published in 1935, Du Bois’ Black Reconstruction was the first book to challenge the prevailing racist historical narrative of the era and in sharp, incisive prose, tell the story of the Civil War and Reconstruction from the perspective of African Americans.

    • Resource Types: Books: Non-Fiction | Time Periods: Civil War Era: 1850 - 1864, Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, Industrial Revolution: 1877 - 1899, 18th Century, 19th Century | Themes: African American, Democracy & Citizenship, Racism & Racial Identity | Reading Levels: Adult
    • The Era of Reconstruction, 1861-1900

    • Book – Non-fiction. By National Park Service. 2017. 165 pages.
      A theme study on the history of the Reconstruction era.

    • Resource Types: Books: Non-Fiction | Time Periods: Civil War Era: 1850 - 1864, Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, Industrial Revolution: 1877 - 1899, 19th Century, 20th Century | Themes: African American, Democracy & Citizenship, Racism & Racial Identity | Reading Levels: Adult
    • A People's History of the United States (Book) | Zinn Education Project: Teaching People's History
    • A People's History of the United States: 1492 - Present

    • Books – Non-fiction. By Howard Zinn. 2005, with a new introduction by Anthony Arnove in 2015. 784 pages.
      Howard Zinn’s groundbreaking work on U.S. history. This book details lives and facts rarely included in textbooks—an indispensable teacher and student resource.

    • Resource Types: Books: Non-Fiction | Time Periods: Colonization: 1492 - 1764, Revolution & Constitution: 1765 - 1799, Early 19th Century: 1800 - 1849, Civil War Era: 1850 - 1864, Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, Industrial Revolution: 1877 - 1899, Turn of the Century: 1900 - 1909, World War I: 1910 - 1919, Prosperity, Depression, & World War II: 1920 - 1944, Cold War: 1945 - 1960, People’s Movement: 1961 - 1974, Post-Civil Rights Era: 1975 - 2000, 2001 - Present, All US History | Themes: African American, Civil Rights Movements, Democracy & Citizenship, Economics, Education, Immigration, Imperialism, Labor, Laws & Citizen Rights, Native American, Organizing, Racism & Racial Identity, Slavery, Social Class, US Foreign Policy, Wars & Related Anti-War Movements, Women's History | Reading Levels: Adult, High School
    • A Short History of Reconstruction, Updated Edition (Book) | Zinn Education Project: Teaching People's History
    • A Short History of Reconstruction, Updated Edition

    • Book – Non-fiction. By Eric Foner. 2015. 352 pages.
      A people’s history view of the Reconstruction era.

    • Resource Types: Books: Non-Fiction | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, Industrial Revolution: 1877 - 1899, 19th Century | Themes: Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights, Racism & Racial Identity, Slavery | Reading Levels: High School
    • Voices of a People’s History of the United States (Book, 10th anniv.) | Zinn Education Project: Teaching People's History
    • Voices of a People's History of the United States, 10th Anniversary Edition

    • Book – Non-fiction. Edited by Howard Zinn and Anthony Arnove. 2014. 704 pages.
      Speeches, letters, poems, and songs for each chapter of A People’s History of the United States.

    • Resource Types: Books: Non-Fiction | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, All US History | Themes: Labor, Organizing, Slavery, Wars & Related Anti-War Movements, Women's History | Reading Levels: Grades 6-8, High School
    • Crow (Book) | Zinn Education Project: Teaching People's History
    • Crow

    • Book – Fiction. By Barbara Wright. 2012. 304 pages.
      Historical fiction about an Reconstruction era African American community violently robbed of its freedom and democracy in turn of the century North Carolina.

    • Resource Types: Books: Fiction | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, 19th Century | Themes: African American, Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights, Media | Reading Levels: Grades 6-8
    • Forty Acres and Maybe a Mule

    • Book – Fiction. By Harriette Gillem Robinet. 1998. 144 pages.
      Historical fiction featuring 12-year-old Pascal, 8-year-old Nellie, and their older brother Gideon, a Union Army aide, as they claim and farm the land promised to them during Reconstruction.

    • Resource Types: Books: Fiction | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, 19th Century | Themes: Racism & Racial Identity | Reading Levels: Grades 6-8
    • Freedom Road

    • Book – Fiction. By Howard Fast. 1944. 294 pages.
      The politics and economics of Reconstruction told through memorable historical fiction.

    • Resource Types: Books: Fiction | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, 19th Century | Themes: Economics | Reading Levels: High School
    • Haymarket: A Novel

    • Book – Fiction. By Martin Duberman. 2005. 330 pages.
      Historical novel for high school and adults on the Haymarket struggle.

    • Resource Types: Books: Fiction | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, 19th Century | Themes: Labor, Organizing | Reading Levels: High School
    • In the Footsteps of Crazy Horse

    • Book – Fiction. By Joseph Marshall III. Illustrations by Jim Yellowhawk. 2015. 176 pages.
      A contemporary Native American boy learns about the history of Crazy Horse in a journey with his grandfather.

    • Resource Types: Books: Fiction | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, Industrial Revolution: 1877 - 1899, 19th Century, 21st Century | Themes: Native American | Reading Levels: Grades 6-8
    • Riot (Book) - YA historical fiction about the 1863 Draft Riots by Walter Dean Myers | Zinn Education Project: Teaching People's HIstory
    • Riot

    • Book – Fiction. By Walter Dean Myers. 2011. 176 pages.
      Historical novel about the 1863 draft riots in New York for young adults.

    • Resource Types: Books: Fiction | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, 19th Century | Themes: Racism & Racial Identity | Reading Levels: High School
    • Sugar

    • Book – Fiction. By Jewell Parker Rhodes. 2013. 288 pages.
      Historical fiction about Reconstruction-era Louisiana through the eyes of a young girl who bridges the divide between the long-time plantation workers and the Chinese indentured servants.

    • Resource Types: Books: Fiction | Time Periods: Reconstruction Period: 1865 - 1876, 20th Century | Themes: African American, Asian American, Immigration, Labor, Racism & Racial Identity | Reading Levels: Grades 6-8
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